Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders (PMAD)
Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMAD) include a spectrum of mental health conditions that occur during pregnancy or up to one year postpartum. Many women experience mild mood changes during or after the birth of a child, including postpartum “blues”, which occur in 50-80% of women and are considered normal. However, when symptoms persist beyond the first 2-3 weeks after giving birth, are more intense, or interfere with daily activities, they may be a sign of a PMAD, such as depression or anxiety. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, estimates suggested that 13-21% of women experience PMADs.1 However, recent reviews suggest that both depression and anxiety in pregnant individuals have increased significantly during the pandemic, up to nearly two-fold for depression (27%) and three-fold for anxiety (42%).2,3,4 Addressing PMADs promptly is critical for the health and well-being of the mother, infants and young children.
Additional information on PMAD
Orange County Perinatal Mental Health Toolkit
Free Online Training: Pharmacologic Management of Perinatal Mental Health Disorders by Primary Care and OB Providers: What to Know and How to Help
Mental health resources
1Kendig S, Keats JP, Hoffman MC, et al. Consensus bundle on maternal mental health: perinatal depression and anxiety. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;129:422–430. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
2Racine N, Eirich R, Cooke J, et al. When the bough breaks: a systematic review and meta-analysis of mental health symptoms in mothers of young children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Infant Ment Health J. 2022;43:36–54. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
3Tomfohr-Madsen LM, Racine N, Giesbrecht GF, Lebel C, Madigan S. Depression and anxiety in pregnancy during COVID-19: a rapid review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2021;300 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
4Zhang CXW, Okeke JC, Levitan RD et al. Evaluating depression and anxiety throughout pregnancy and after birth: impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2022 May;4(3):100605, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2022.100605.